Tests for Kidney function ?

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Tests for Kidney function ?
Healthy kidneys remove wastes and excess fluid from the blood. Blood and urine tests show how well the kidneys are doing their job and how quickly body wastes are being removed.  Urine tests can also detect whether the kidneys are leaking abnormal amounts of protein, a sign of kidney damage. Here’s a quick guide to the tests used to measure kidney function.
Blood Tests
Serum Creatinine
Creatinine is a waste product that comes from the normal wear and tear on muscles of the body. Creatinine levels in the blood can vary depending on age, race and body size. A creatinine level of greater than 1.2 for women and greater than 1.4 for men may be an early sign that the kidneys are not working properly. As kidney disease progresses, the level of creatinine in the blood rises.
Glomerular Filtration Rate(GFR)
(mathematical formula using the MDRD or CKD-EPI equation)
This test is a measure of how well the kidneys are removing wastes and excess fluid from the blood. It is calculated from the serum creatinine level using age and gender with adjustment for those of African American descent.  Normal GFR can vary according to age (as you get older it can decrease). The normal value for GFR is 90 or above. A GFR below 60 is a sign that the kidneys are not working properly. Once the GFR decreases below 15, one is at high risk for needing treatment for kidney failure, such as dialysis or a kidney transplant.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
Urea nitrogen comes from the breakdown of protein in the foods you eat. A normal BUN level is between 7 and 20. As kidney function decreases, the BUN level rises.
Imaging Tests
Ultrasound
This test uses sound waves to get a picture of the kidney. It may be used to look for abnormalities in size or position of the kidneys or for obstructions such as stones or tumors.
CT Scan
This imaging technique uses X-rays to picture the kidneys. It may also be used to look for structural abnormalities and the presence of obstructions.  This test may require the use of intravenous contrast dye which can be of concern for those with kidney disease.

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