Early detect CKD/Kidney Disease.

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| Key conclusions from the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference on Early Identification and Intervention Populations for CKD screening, risk stratification, and treatment Conclusion 1. Persons with hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease should be screened for CKD. Conclusion 2. CKD screening and treatment programs should also be implemented in other high-risk individuals and populations based on comorbidities, environmental exposures, or genetic risk factors. Conclusion 3. The initiation, frequency, and cessation of CKD screening should be individualized based on kidney and cardiovascular risk profiles and individual preferences. Measurements for early CKD Conclusion 4. CKD screening and risk stratification must consist of a dual assessment of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria (UACR). Conclusion 5. Accurate GFR estimation includes both creatinine and cystatin C measurements for initial diagnosis and staging. Conclusion 6. The combination of creatinine, cystatin C, and UACR for CKD screening is affordable in high-income settings. Interventions for CKD Conclusion 7. A key rationale for CKD screening is the availability of many effective interventions to delay CKD progression and reduce cardiovascular risk. Conclusion 8. Accurate diagnosis and staging of CKD are necessary to utilize treatments effectively. Conclusion 9. Patient engagement is a critical component of efforts to screen for and treat CKD. Health system and economic factors Conclusion 10. CKD screening and treatment efforts require multi-stakeholder implementation strategies to overcome barriers to high-quality CKD care. Conclusion 11. Financial and nonfinancial incentives need to be aligned toward CKD screening, risk stratification, and treatment. Conclusion 12. CKD screening in high-risk groups is likely to be cost-effective. Conclusion 13. CKD screening approaches may differ in LMIC countries. CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated gl

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